• MAGYARS: The Finnish tribe of the Magyars, who were originally a forest dwelling people, migrated south to the treeless Ukrainian steppe where they learned to ride horses. In the Ukraine, they united with the horse-mounted Onogur Bulgars (see above) to form the Hungarian Magyars around 830 AD. They made trouble for the Khazars. In 889 and again in 895 AD, the Pecheneg Turks defeated the Magyars, thereby pushing them out of the Ukraine. The main group of Magyars crossed the Carpathian Mountains to conquer and settle on the steppe-like plains of what is now Hungary around 898 AD. In so doing, they took over the northern part of the lands of the Danube Bulgar Khanate. Their great warrior chieftain leader in this adventure was named Árpád. They terrorized Europe for a time with raids into Italy, Germany, and France. Ultimately, the Magyars were decisively defeated by the Germans at the Battle of the Lech River in Bavaria in 955 AD. They became Christian in 1000 AD, thus forming the basis of the modern nation of Hungary.