Abazov, Rafis. The Palgrave Concise Historical Atlas of Central Asia. New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2008.


Allen, Thomas B. “Time Catches Up With Mongolia.” National Geographic Vol. 167, No. 2 (February 1985): 242-269.


Arabshah, Ahmed Ibn. Tamerlane, or Timur the Great Amir. Translated by J. H. Sanders. Mansfield Centre, Connecticut: Martino Publishing 2007.


Arnold, Eve. In China. New York: Knopf, 1980.


Aruz, Joan, Ann Farkas, Andrei Alekseev, and Elena Korolkova, eds. The Golden Deer of Eurasia: Scythian and Sarmatian Treasures From the Russian Steppes. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000.


Ascherson, Neal. Black Sea. New York: Hill and Wang, 1995.


Bachrach, Bernard S. A History of the Alans in the West. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1973.


Banks, Arthur. A World Atlas of Military History: Volume I—to 1500. New York: Hippocrene, 1973.


Barfield, Thomas J. The Perilous Frontier: Nomadic Empires and China, 221 BC to AD 1757. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Blackwell, 1989.


Baumer, Christoph. The History of Central Asia, Volume One: The Age of the Steppe Warriors. London: I.B. Tauris, 2012.


Beckwith, Christopher I. Empires of the Silk Road: A History of Central Eurasia from the Bronze Age to the Present. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2009.


Benfield, Darrel C. The Mongols: Early Practitioners of Maneuver Warfare. Fort Leavenworth, Kansas: School of Advanced Military Studies, United States Army Command and General Staff College, 2012.


Brysac, Shareen Blair. “The Scythian Scourge.” MHQ: The Quarterly Journal of Military History Vol. 16, No. 2 (Winter 2004): 6-13.


Brzezinski, R. and M. Mielczarek. The Sarmatians 600 BC-AD 450. Oxford, England: Osprey, 2002.


Cernenko, E. V. The Scythians 700-300 BC. Translator not named. London: Osprey, 1983.


Chaliand, Gerard. Nomadic Empires: From Mongolia to the Danube. Translated by A.M. Barrett. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transaction Publishers, 2004.


Chambers, James. The Devil’s Horsemen: the Mongol Invasion of Europe. New York: Atheneum, 1979.


Christian, David. A History of Russia, Central Asia, and Mongolia, Volume I: Inner Eurasia from Prehistory to the Mongol Empire. Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishing, 1998.


Davis-Kimball, Jeannine, ed. Nomads of the Eurasian Steppes in the Early Iron Age. Berkeley: Zinat Press, 1995.


________. “Sauro-Sarmatian Nomadic Women: New Gender Identities.” The Journal of Indo-European Studies Volume 25, Numbers 3 & 4 (Summer/Winter 1997): 327-343.


________. “Warrior Women of the Eurasian Steppes.” Archaeology Magazine, January/February 1997: 44-48.


________, and Leonid T. Yablonsky. Kurgans on the Left Bank of the Ilek: Excavations at Pokrovka 1990-1992. Berkeley, California: Zinat Press, 1995.


________, and Mona Behan. Warrior Women: An Archaeologist’s Search for History’s Hidden Heroines. New York: Warner Books, 2002.


________. “Amazon Warrior Women” from Secrets of the Dead. 60 min. PBS Home Video, 2004. DVD.


________. Electronic mail message to the author, July 14, 1998.


de Clavijo, Ruy González. Embassy to Tamerlane, 1403-1406. Translated by Guy Le Strange. Kilkerran, Scotland: Hardinge Simpole, 2009.


Di Cosmo, Nicola. Ancient China and its Enemies: The Rise of Nomadic Power in East Asian History. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2002.


________, ed. Warfare in Inner Asian History (500-1800). Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2002.


________, Allen J. Frank, and Peter B. Golden, eds. The Cambridge History of Inner Asia: The Chinggisid Age. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2009.


Drews, Robert. Early Riders: The Beginnings of Mounted Warfare in Asia and Europe. New York: Routledge, 2004.


Dupuy, R. Ernest and Trevor N. Dupuy. The Harper Encyclopedia of Military History, Fourth Edition. New York: Harper Collins, 1993.


Edwards, Mike. “Lord of the Mongols: Genghis Khan.” National Geographic Vol. 190, No. 6 (December 1996): 8-37.


________. “Searching for the Scythians.” National Geographic Vol. 190, No. 3 (September 1996): 54-79.


________. “Siberia’s Scythians: Masters of Gold.” National Geographic Vol. 203, No. 6 (June 2003): 112-129.


________. “Sons of Genghis: The Great Khans.” National Geographic Vol. 191, No. 2 (February 1997): 2-35.


Fairbank, John K., Edwin O. Reischauer, and Albert M. Craig. East Asia: Tradition and Transformation, Revised Edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1989.


Faison, Seth. “As Towns Lose Allure, Nomads Are Nomads Again.” The New York Times, October 9, 1996.


Fields, Nic. The Hun: Scourge of God AD 375-565. Oxford, England: Osprey, 2006.


Fisher, Sydney Nettleton. The Middle East: A History, Third Edition. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1979.


Fleming, Harold C. “At the Vortex of Central Asia: Mummies as Testimony to Prehistory.” In The Bronze Age and Early Iron Age Peoples of Eastern Central Asia, Volume II, ed. Victor H. Mair, 671-682. Washington, D.C.: The Institute for the Study of Man, 1998.


Frye, Richard N. The Heritage of Central Asia: From Antiquity to the Turkish Expansion. Princeton, New Jersey: Markus Wiener Publishers, 1996.


Groushko, M. A. Cossack: Warrior Riders of the Steppes. New York: Sterling, 1992.


Grousset, René. The Empire of the Steppes: A History of Central Asia. Translated by Naomi Walford. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1970.


Harlew, Ethan A. Facing Death as a Way of Life. Translator not named. Alexandria, Virginia: Defense Technical Information Center, Defense Logistics Agency, 1979.


Heath, Ian. Byzantine Armies 886-1118. London: Osprey, 1979.


________. Byzantine Armies 1118-1461 AD. London: Osprey, 1995.


Herodotus. The Histories. Translated by Aubrey de Sélincourt. Revised with introductory matter and notes by John Marincola. London: Penguin, 1996.


Hildinger, Erik. Warriors of the Steppe: A Military History of Central Asia, 500 BC to 1700 AD. New York: Sarpedon, 1997.


Hinds, Kathryn. Barbarians! Scythians and Sarmatians. Tarrytown, New York: Marshal Cavendish Benchmark, 2010.


Hodges, Glenn. “Mongolian Crossing: Is Time Running Out on a Timeless Migration?” National Geographic Vol. 204, No. 4 (October 2003): 102-121, 130-133.


Jacobson, Esther. The Art of the Scythians: The Interpretation of Cultures at the Edge of the Hellenistic World. Leiden, The Netherlands/New York/Cologne, Germany: E. J. Brill, 1995.


Jettmar, Karl. Art of the Steppes. Translated by Ann E. Keep. New York: Greystone Press, 1967.


Karasulas, Antony. Mounted Archers of the Steppe 600 BC-AD 1300. Oxford, England: Osprey, 2004.


Keegan, John. A History of Warfare. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1993.


Kinder, Herman, and Werner Hilgeman. The Anchor Atlas of World History Volume I. Translated by Ernest A. Menze. New York: Doubleday, 1974.


King, John, John Noble, and Andrew Humphreys. Central Asia: A Lonely Planet Travel Survival Kit. Hawthorn, Australia: Lonely Planet Publications, 1996.


Kwanten, Luc. Imperial Nomads: A History of Central Asia, 500-1500. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1979.


Legg, Stuart. The Barbarians of Asia: The Peoples of the Steppes From 1600 BC. New York: Barnes and Noble, 1995.


Lewis, Geoffrey, trans. The Book of Dede Korkut. London and New York: Penguin, 1974.


Littleton, C. Scott. “Were the Sarmatians the Source of Arthurian Legend?” Archaeology Magazine, January/February 1997: 48.


MacDowall, Simon. Late Roman Cavalryman 236-565 AD. London: Osprey, 1995.


Marozzi, Justin. Tamerlane: Sword of Islam, Conqueror of the World. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Da Capo Press, 2006.


Matthews, John, and Bob Stewart. Warriors of Arthur. London: Blandford Press, 1987.


May, Timothy. The Mongol Art of War. Yardley, Pennsylvania: Westholme Publishing, 2007.


Mayor, Adrienne and Josiah Ober. “Amazons.” MHQ: The Quarterly Journal of Military History Vol. 3, No. 4 (Summer 1991): 68-77.


McEvedy, Colin. The New Penguin Atlas of Ancient History. New York: Penguin, 2002.


________. The New Penguin Atlas of Medieval History. New York: Penguin, 1992.


________. The Penguin Atlas of Modern History (to 1815). New York: Penguin, 1972.


Newark, Tim. The Barbarians: Warriors and Wars of the Dark Ages. London: Blandford Press, 1985.


________. Women Warlords: An Illustrated History of Female Warriors. London: Blandford Press, 1989.


Nicolle, David. Armies of the Ottoman Turks 1300-1774. London: Osprey, 1983.


________. Attila and the Nomad Hordes. London: Osprey, 1990.


________. Hungary and the Fall of Eastern Europe 1000-1568. London: Osprey, 1988.


________. Romano-Byzantine Armies 4th-9th Centuries. London: Osprey, 1992.


________. Saladin and the Saracens. London: Osprey, 1986.


________. The Age of Tamerlane. London: Osprey, 1990.


________. The Mamluks 1250-1517. London: Osprey, 1993.


________. The Mongol Warlords. New York: Sterling, 1990.


Nicolle, D., and V. Shpakovsky. Kalka River 1223: Genghiz Khan’s Mongols Invade Russia. Oxford, England: Osprey, 2001.


O’Conell, Robert L. Ride of the Second Horseman: The Birth and Death of War. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.


________. “The Composite Bow.” MHQ: The Quarterly Journal of Military History Vol. 6, No. 1 (Autumn 1993): 46-47.


Phillips, E. D. The Royal Hordes: Nomad Peoples of the Steppes. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1965.


Pinker, Steven. The Better Angels of Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined. New York: Viking, 2011.


Pittard, Dana J. H. “Genghis Khan and 13th-Century AirLand Battle.” Military Review Vol. LXVI, No. 7 (July 1986): 18-27.


Rea, Cam. March of the Scythians: From Sargon II to the Fall of Nineveh. San Bernardino, California: Rea Publishing, 2014.


Reeder, Ellen D., ed. Scythian Gold: Treasures From Ancient Ukraine. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1999.


Rice, T. Talbot. The Scythians. New York: Praeger, 1957.


Rolle, Renate. The World of the Scythians. Translated by F. G. Walls. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989.


Rudenko, Sergei I. Frozen Tombs of Siberia: the Pazyryk Burials of Iron Age Horsemen. Translated and with a preface by M. W. Thompson. London: J. M. Dent and Sons, 1970.


Sinor, Denis. “The Inner Asian Warriors.” Journal of the American Oriental Society Volume 101, Number 2 (April-June 1981): 133-144.


________, ed. The Cambridge History of Early Inner Asia. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1990.


Shpakovsky, Viacheslav and David Nicolle. Armies of the Volga Bulgars & Khanate of Kazan 9th-16th Centuries. Oxford, England: Osprey, 2013.


Stewart, Doug. “Scythian Gold.” Smithsonian Vol. 30, No. 12 (March 2000): 88-96.


Sulimirski, Tadeusz. The Sarmatians. New York: Praeger, 1970.


Sümer, Faruk, Ahmet E. Uysal, and Warren S. Walker, trans and eds. The Book of Dede Korkut. Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press, 1972.


Tamai, Isao, producer. “Two Roads to the Pamirs” from The Silk Road. 55 min. Central Park Media, 1992. VHS tape.


________. “Where Horses Fly Like The Wind” from The Silk Road. 55 min. Central Park Media, 1992. VHS tape.


Taylor, Timothy. “Thracians, Scythians, and Dacians, 800 BC-AD 300.” In The Oxford Illustrated Prehistory of Europe, ed. Barry Cunliffe, 373-410. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.


Tolkien, Christopher, trans. and ed. The Saga of King Heidrek the Wise. London: Thomas Nelson and Sons, 1960.


Torday, Laszlo. Mounted Archers: The Beginnings of Central Asian History. Durham, England: The Durham Academic Press, 1997.


Toynbee, Arnold. A Study of History: A New Edition Revised and Abridged by the Author and Jane Caplan. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1972.


Turnbull, S. R. The Mongols. London: Osprey, 1980.


Turnbull, Stephen. Mongol Warrior 1200-1350. Oxford, England: Osprey, 2003.


________. Genghis Khan & the Mongol Conquests 1190-1400. Oxford, England: Osprey, 2003.


Vickers, Michael. Scythian and Thracian Antiquities. Oxford, England: University of Oxford, Ashmolean Museum, 2002.


Warry, John. Warfare in the Classical World. London: Salamander, 1980.


White, Matthew. The Great Big Book of Horrible Things: The Definitive Chronicle of History’s 100 Worst Atrocities. New York: W. W. Norton, 2012.


Wilcox, Peter. Rome’s Enemies: Germanics and Dacians. London: Osprey, 1982.


________. Rome’s Enemies (3): Parthians and Sassanid Persians. London: Osprey, 1986.


NOTE: I consulted on-line Wikipedia articles at in an effort to corroborate and/or reconcile information contained in the works listed above.